Humanoid League

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League Overview

Humanoid KidSize (Foto: D. Kriesel)
Louis Vuitton Cup
Humanoid TeenSize (Foto: D. Kriesel)

In the Humanoid League, autonomous robots with a human-like body plan and human-like senses play soccer against each other. Unlike humanoid robots outside the Humanoid League the task of perception and world modeling is not simplified by using non-human like range sensors. In addition to soccer competitions technical challenges take place. Dynamic walking, running, and kicking the ball while maintaining balance, visual perception of the ball, other players, and the field, self-localization, and team play are among the many research issues investigated in the Humanoid League. Several of the best autonomous humanoid robots in the world compete in the RoboCup Humanoid League.

The robots are divided into three size classes: KidSize (40-90cm height), TeenSize (80-140cm) and AdultSize (130-180cm). In the KidSize soccer competition teams of four, highly dynamic autonomous robots compete with each other. Since 2010 the TeenSize soccer competition features teams of two autonomous robots competing with each other. In AdultSize soccer, a striker robot plays against a goal keeper robot first and then the same robots play with exchanged roles against each other.

Since the establishment of the Humanoid League in 2002, every year it awards the Louis Vuitton Best Humanoid Award.

For more information please visit the home page of the humanoid leage at

How To Participate

To participate in a RoboCup event, like one of the several local Open competitions or the annual RoboCup world championship, you just need to follow the respective call for participation of each event and to apply with the required documents within the respective time frame. A (nonexclusive) list of events related to the humanoid league is available, for example, at:

For new coming teams it is recommended to participate in a local open competition first, if possible. It is not a must but it certainly helps a lot to develop a competitive team.

If you intend to participate on this year's World Championship please visit the Call for Participation at:


Contact information for all committee members in 2017 can be found at


  • Oskar von Stryk, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany
  • Sven Behnke, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany

Executive Committee

The Executive Committee members are responsible for the long term goals of the league and represent the Humanoid League within the general RoboCup community as well as to the RoboCup federation. The Executive Committee presents the league and its achievements to the RoboCup federation every year and gets feedback to organize the league. All committee members are also members of the Technical Committee. Executive Committee members are elected by the board of trustees of the RoboCup federation; they serve 3-year terms.

  • Jacky Baltes, University of Manitoba, Canada, Canada, 1st term, until 2019
  • Sean Luke, George Mason University, USA, 1st term, until 2017
  • Reinhard Gerndt, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, 1st term, until 2017
  • Soroush Sadeghnejad, Amirkabir University of Technology (Tehran Polytechnic), Iran, 1st term, until 2017

Technical Committee

The Technical Committee (TC) is responsible for technical issues of the league along with the Executive Committee members listed above. The TC members are elected annually by the leaders of the teams participating in the RoboCup Humanoid League. The current TC members are

  • Maike Paetzel (Germany)
  • Luis F. Lupian (Mexico)
  • Reinaldo Bianchi (Brazil)

Organizing Committee

The Organizing Committee (OC) is appointed for each, annual RoboCup competition and responsible for the organization of the annual competitions in the Humanoid League. Its current members are:

  • Chair: Maike Paetzel (Germany)
  • Local Chair: Hideaki Minakata (Japan)
  • Jacky Baltes (Canada)
  • Bente Reichardt (Germany)
  • Soroush Sadeghenjad (Iran)
  • Reinhard Gerndt (Germany)
  • Agnes Passault (France)
  • Rodrigo da Silva Guerra (Brazil)


The rules of the RoboCup Humanoid League are evolved on a yearly schedule. During the annual RoboCup competition, which is usually held in June or July, the team leaders of the teams in the humanoid league meet and discuss the general outline of the rule development for the following year. Later on the discussion is continued over the humanoid league's mailing list The final, annual update of the rules is then published at

Humanoid League Proposed Roadmap

The RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League roadmap has been constituted in the year 2014 to lay out a rough plan of milestones that the Humanoid League would have to reach on the way to the 2050 goal: to defeat the human world champion soccer team in a fair game according to the FIFA rules. The idea of the roadmap is to define large changes to the environment and the gameplay, which take effect every five years to encourage a steady long term development of the league. For each five year min robot height, filed length, max number of players in each team and also duration of play per half have been proposed. The currently three size classes will successively be reduced to two and finally one as the minimum robot heights will be increased over the years. The planned technical challenges for this duration have come at the end. The the first roadmap draft for the Humanoid League is then published at


Information about teams that are or have been participating in the RoboCup Humanoid League is available at

RoboCup Events

All Events

A list of recent and previous events related to the RoboCup Humanoid League is available at

RoboCup 2017 Information

Scores of Recent RoboCup World Championships

RoboCup 2016

RoboCup 2016 Humanoid League Results link

RoboCup 2015

RoboCup 2015 Humanoid League Results link

RoboCup 2014

RoboCup 2014 Humanoid League Results link

RoboCup 2013

RoboCup 2013 Humanoid Kid-Size League Results Link

RoboCup 2013 Humanoid Teen-Size League Results Link

RoboCup 2013 Humanoid Adult-Size League Results Link

RoboCup 2012

RoboCup 2012 Humanoid League Results Link

RoboCup 2011

RoboCup 2011 Humanoid League Results Link

RoboCup 2010

RoboCup 2010 Humanoid League Results Link

RoboCup Champions

The Humanoid League started in 2002 and its rules and different subleagues (size classes) evolved over the years. A history of the Humanoid League is available at

RoboCup champions for different past years for both soccer games and also technical challenges are as below:

Soccer Games

Year Size 1st Place Team 2nd Place Team 3rd Place Team Media
2016 KidSize Rhoban Football Club ZJUDancer CIT Brains [video]
TeenSize Nimbro TeenSize HuroEvolution TN AUTMan [video]
AdultSize Baset Adult Sweaty IRC [video]
Best Humanoid Baset Adult - -
2015 KidSize CIT Brains Kid ZJUDancer Rhoban Football Club [video]
TeenSize Team Parand HuroEvolution TN AUT-UofM [video]
AdultSize Team THORWIN Baset Adult HuroEvolution AD [video]
Best Humanoid CIT Brains - -
2014 KidSize CIT Brains Kid Bold Hearts Baset Kid-Size [video]
TeenSize Baset Teen-Size NimbRo Parand Teen [video]
AdultSize Team THORWIN HuroEvolutionAD Tsinghua Hephaestus [video]
Best Humanoid CIT Brains - -
2013 KidSize Team DARwIn AUTMan ZJU Dancer video
TeenSize NimbRo TeenSize CIT Brains Teen FUB-KIT video
AdultSize JoiTech HuroEvolution AD Tsinghua Hephaestus video
Best Humanoid JoiTech NimbRo TeenSize Team DARwIn
2012 KidSize Team DARwIn CIT Brains Darmstadt Dribblers video
TeenSize NimbRo TeenSize CIT Brains Team DARwin-XOS video
AdultSize Team CHARLI Tsinghua Hephaestus JoiTech video
Best Humanoid NimbRo (TeenSize) - -
2011 KidSize Team DARwIn CIT Brains Darmstadt Dribblers video
TeenSize NimbRo TeenSize KMUTT Kickers AcYut4 video
AdultSize Team CHARLI RoboErectus Senior Tsinghua Hephaestus video
Best Humanoid Team CHARLI(AdultSize) NimbRo(TeenSize) Team DARwIn(KidSize)
2010 KidSize Darmstadt Dribblers FUmanoids CIT Brains Kid video
TeenSize NimbRo TeenSize CIT Brains Teen TsinghuaHephaestus video
AdultSize Team RO-PE RoboErectus Senior Team CHARLI
Best Humanoid NimbRo TeenSize (TeenSize) Darmstadt Dribblers (KidSize) Team RO-PE (AdultSize)
2009 KidSize Darmstadt Dribblers FUmanoids CIT Brains Kid video
TeenSize NimbRo Teen CIT Brains Teen TsinghuaHephaestus Teen video
Best Humanoid Darmstadt Dribblers (KidSize) NimbRo Teen (TeenSize) CIT Brains Teen (TeenSize)
2008 KidSize NimbRo Kid Team Osaka CIT Brains Kid
TeenSize Team Osaka TsinghuaHephaestus Teen NimbRo Teen
Best Humanoid Team Osaka (TeenSize)

Technical Challenges

Year Size 1st Place Team
2014 KidSize CIT Brains Kid
TeenSize AUTUofM & NimbroTeenSize
AdultSize HuroEvolutionAD
2013 KidSize CIT Brains Kid
TeenSize NimbRo TeenSize
AdultSize JoiTech
2012 KidSize CIT Brains Kid
TeenSize NimbRo TeenSize
AdultSize Joi Tech
2011 KidSize Darmstadt Dribblers
TeenSize NimbRo
AdultSize JoiTech
2010 KidSize FUmanoids
TeenSize CIT Brains Teen
AdultSize Team RO-PE
2009 KidSize Darmstadt Dribblers
TeenSize NimbRo Teen

Research State of the Art

While in the first years of the Humanoid League, the robots engaged only in penalty kick competitions, since 2005 soccer games are played in KidSize class and since 2010 also in TeenSize class. The AdultSize class was introduced in 2010, where robots play a Dribble & Kick tournament. In order to gradually get closer to the RoboCup vision of 2050, over the years, the size of the field has been enlarged, color markings have been reduced and the body-plan of the robots has been getting closer to real human proportions.

Fast omnidirectional gaits with stabilizing feedback mechanisms, dynamic full-body motions, and reliable self-localization techniques have been developed in the league. As the KidSize and TeenSize robots master the basic soccer skills better, team play becomes more important. Technical highlights include the throwing-in of the ball, various kicking techniques (including high-kick), fast goalies that dive to the ground, double passes, and careful obstacle avoidance.

A list of humanoid soccer-related special issues and workshops can be found at the HL's home page


A collection of videos of the Humanoid League from recent RoboCup world championships is available at

Other Information