In the Humanoid League, autonomous robots with a human-like body plan and human-like senses play soccer against each other. Unlike humanoid robots outside the Humanoid League the task of perception and world modeling is not simplified by using non-human like range sensors. In addition to soccer competitions technical challenges take place. Dynamic walking, running, and kicking the ball while maintaining balance, visual perception of the ball, other players, and the field, self-localization, and team play are among the many research issues investigated in the Humanoid League. Several of the best autonomous humanoid robots in the world compete in the RoboCup Humanoid League.
The robots are divided into three size classes: KidSize (40-90cm height), TeenSize (80-140cm) and AdultSize (130-180cm). In the KidSize soccer competition teams of four, highly dynamic autonomous robots compete with each other. Since 2010 the TeenSize soccer competition features teams of two autonomous robots competing with each other. In AdultSize soccer, a striker robot plays against a goal keeper robot first and then the same robots play with exchanged roles against each other.
Since the establishment of the Humanoid League in 2002, every year it awards the Louis Vuitton Best Humanoid Award.
For more information please visit the home page of the humanoid leage at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/
How To Participate
To participate in a RoboCup event, like one of the several local Open competitions or the annual RoboCup world championship, you just need to follow the respective call for particpation of each event and to apply with the required documents within the respective time frame. A (non exclusive) list of events related to the humanoid league is available, for example, at: https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/league/events/.
For new coming teams it is recommended to participate in a local open competition first, if possible. It is not a must but it certainly helps a lot to develop a competitive team.
If you intend to participate on this year's World Championship please visit the Call for Participation at: https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/hl-2015/call/.
Contact information for all committee members in 2016 can be found at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/hl-2016/committees/.
- Oskar von Stryk, Technische Universität Darmstadt, Germany
- Sven Behnke, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms-Universität Bonn, Germany
The Executive Committee members are responsible for the long term goals of the league and represent the Humanoid League within the general RoboCup community as well as to the RoboCup federation. The Executive Committee presents the league and its achievements to the RoboCup federation every year and gets feedback to organize the league. All committee members are also members of the Technical Committee. Executive Committee members are elected by the board of trustees of the RoboCup federation; they serve 3-year terms.
- Reinhard Gerndt, Ostfalia University of Applied Sciences, 1st term, until 2017
- Luis F. Lupian, Universidad La Salle, Mexico, 2nd term, until 2016
- Sean Luke, George Mason University, USA, 1st term, until 2017
- Soroush Sadeghnejad, Amirkabir University of Technology, Iran, 1st term, until 2017
The Technical Committee (TC) is responsible for technical issues of the league along with the Executive Committee members listed above. The TC members are elected annually by the leaders of the teams participating in the RoboCup Humanoid League. The current TC members are
- Jacky Baltes (Canada)
- Marcell Missura (Germany)
- Stephen McGill (USA)
- Carlos Acosta (Singapore)
The Organizing Committee (OC) is appointed for each, annual RoboCup competition and responsible for the organization of the annual competitions in the Humanoid League. Its current members are:
- Chair: Soroush Sadeghnejad (Iran)
- Local Chair: Reinhard Gerndt (Germany)
- Local Chair: Daniel Seifert (Germany)
- Jacky Baltes (Canada)
- Miake Paetzel (Germany)
- Bente Reichardt (Germany)
- Asadollah Norouzi (Singapore)
- Carlos Acosta (Singapore)
The rules of the RoboCup Humanoid League are evolved on a yearly schedule. During the annual RoboCup competition, which is usually held in June or July, the team leaders of the teams in the humanoid league meet and discuss the general outline of the rule development for the following year. Later on the discussion is continued over the humanoid league's mailing list http://lists.cc.gatech.edu/pipermail/robocup-humanoid/. The final, annual update of the rules is then published at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/materials/rules/.
Humanoid League Proposed Roadmap
The RoboCup Soccer Humanoid League roadmap has been constituted in the year 2014 to lay out a rough plan of milestones that the Humanoid League would have to reach on the way to the 2050 goal: to defeat the human world champion soccer team in a fair game according to the FIFA rules. The idea of the roadmap is to define large changes to the environment and the gameplay, which take effect every five years to encourage a steady long term development of the league. For each five year min robot height, filed length, max number of players in each team and also duration of play per half have been proposed. The currently three size classes will successively be reduced to two and finally one as the minimum robot heights will be increased over the years. The planned technical challenges for this duration have come at the end. The the first roadmap draft for the Humanoid League is then published at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/materials/downloads/.
Information about teams that are or have been participating in the RoboCup Humanoid League is available at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org.
A list of recent and previous events related to the RoboCup Humanoid League is available at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/league/events/.
RoboCup 2015 Information
- General information: July 17th to 23rd, 2015, at the Anhui International Conference & Exhibition Center, Hefei, China. http://www.robocup2015.org/
- The teams qualified for RoboCup Humanoid League 2015 were announced in Mar 4, 2015: https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/hl-2015/teams/>
- The new GameController for RoboCup 2015: Coming soon!!
- First draft of the 2015 rule book released in Dec. 5th, 2014: https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/materials/rules/
- The call for participation in RoboCup 2015 Humanoid League: was issued in Dec. 24th, 2014 at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/hl-2015/call/ and https://lists.cc.gatech.edu/mailman/listinfo/robocup-humanoid
Scores of Recent RoboCup World Championships
The Humanoid League started in 2002 and its rules and different subleagues (size classes) evolved over the years. A history of the Humanoid League is available at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/league/history
RoboCup champions for different past years for both soccer games and also technical challenges are as below:
|Year||Size||1st Place Team||2nd Place Team||3rd Place Team||Media|
|2014||KidSize||CIT Brains Kid||Bold Hearts||Baset Kid-Size||[video]|
|TeenSize||Baset Teen-Size||NimbRo||Parand Teen||[video]|
|AdultSize||Team THORWIN||HuroEvolutionAD||Tsinghua Hephaestus||[video]|
|Best Humanoid||CIT Brains||-||-|
|2013||KidSize||Team DARwIn||AUTMan||ZJU Dancer||video|
|TeenSize||NimbRo TeenSize||CIT Brains Teen||FUB-KIT||video|
|AdultSize||JoiTech||HuroEvolution AD||Tsinghua Hephaestus||video|
|Best Humanoid||JoiTech||NimbRo TeenSize||Team DARwIn|
|2012||KidSize||Team DARwIn||CIT Brains||Darmstadt Dribblers||video|
|TeenSize||NimbRo TeenSize||CIT Brains||Team DARwin-XOS||video|
|AdultSize||Team CHARLI||Tsinghua Hephaestus||JoiTech||video|
|Best Humanoid||NimbRo (TeenSize)||-||-|
|2011||KidSize||Team DARwIn||CIT Brains||Darmstadt Dribblers||video|
|TeenSize||NimbRo TeenSize||KMUTT Kickers||AcYut4||video|
|AdultSize||Team CHARLI||RoboErectus Senior||Tsinghua Hephaestus||video|
|Best Humanoid||Team CHARLI(AdultSize)||NimbRo(TeenSize)||Team DARwIn(KidSize)|
|2010||KidSize||Darmstadt Dribblers||FUmanoids||CIT Brains Kid||video|
|TeenSize||NimbRo TeenSize||CIT Brains Teen||TsinghuaHephaestus||video|
|AdultSize||Team RO-PE||RoboErectus Senior||Team CHARLI|
|Best Humanoid||NimbRo TeenSize (TeenSize)||Darmstadt Dribblers (KidSize)||Team RO-PE (AdultSize)|
|2009||KidSize||Darmstadt Dribblers||FUmanoids||CIT Brains Kid||video|
|TeenSize||NimbRo Teen||CIT Brains Teen||TsinghuaHephaestus Teen||video|
|Best Humanoid||Darmstadt Dribblers (KidSize)||NimbRo Teen (TeenSize)||CIT Brains Teen (TeenSize)|
|2008||KidSize||NimbRo Kid||Team Osaka||CIT Brains Kid|
|TeenSize||Team Osaka||TsinghuaHephaestus Teen||NimbRo Teen|
|Best Humanoid||Team Osaka (TeenSize)|
|Year||Size||1st Place Team|
|2014||KidSize||CIT Brains Kid|
|TeenSize||AUTUofM & NimbroTeenSize|
|2013||KidSize||CIT Brains Kid|
|2012||KidSize||CIT Brains Kid|
|TeenSize||CIT Brains Teen|
Research State of the Art
While in the first years of the Humanoid League, the robots engaged only in penalty kick competitions, since 2005 soccer games are played in KidSize class and since 2010 also in TeenSize class. The AdultSize class was introduced in 2010, where robots play a Dribble & Kick tournament. In order to gradually get closer to the RoboCup vision of 2050, over the years, the size of the field has been enlarged, color markings have been reduced and the body-plan of the robots has been getting closer to real human proportions.
Fast omnidirectional gaits with stabilizing feedback mechanisms, dynamic full-body motions, and reliable self-localization techniques have been developed in the league. As the KidSize and TeenSize robots master the basic soccer skills better, team play becomes more important. Technical highlights include the throwing-in of the ball, various kicking techniques (including high-kick), fast goalies that dive to the ground, double passes, and careful obstacle avoidance.
A list of humanoid soccer-related special issues and workshops can be found at the HL's home page https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/league/achievements.
A collection of videos of the Humanoid League from recent RoboCup world championships is available at https://www.robocuphumanoid.org/media.
- Humanoid League Home Page: https://www.robocuphumanoid.org
- Humanoid League Mailing List: http://lists.cc.gatech.edu/pipermail/robocup-humanoid/
- Humanoid League Game Controller/Referee Box: http://github.com/bhuman/gamecontroller/