Soccer Simulation League

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League Overview

Without the necessity to maintain any robot hardware, the RoboCup Simulation League's focus comprises artificial intelligence and team strategy.

2D Simulation League

In the 2D Simulation League, two teams of eleven autonomous software programs (called agents) each play soccer in a two-dimensional virtual soccer stadium represented by a central server, called SoccerServer. This server knows everything about the game, i.e. the current position of all players and the ball, the physics and so on. The game further relies on the communication between the server and each agent. On the one hand each player receives relative and noisy input of his virtual sensors (visual, acoustic and physical) and may on the other hand perform some basic commands (like dashing, turning or kicking) in order to influence its environment.

The big challenge in the Simulation League is to conclude from all possible world states (derived from the sensor input by calculating a sight on the world as absolute and noise-free as possible) to the best possible action to execute. As a game is divided into 6000 cycles this task has to be accomplished in time slot of 100 ms (the length of each cycle). Further information and the SoccerServer software can be accessed via

3D Simulation League

The 3D simulation competition increases the realism of the simulated environment used in other simulation leagues by adding an extra dimension and more complex physics. At its beginning, the only available robot model was a spherical agent. In 2006, a simple model of the Fujitsu HOAP-2 robot was made available, being the first time that humanoid models were used in the simulation league. This shifted the aim of the 3D simulation competition from the design of strategic behaviors of in playing soccer towards the low level control of humanoid robots and the creation of basic behaviors like walking, kicking, turning and standing up, among others.

In 2008, the introduction of a Nao robot model to the simulation gave another perspective to the league. The real Nao robot from Aldebaran robotics has been the official robot for the Standard Platform League since 2008, and using the same model for the simulation competitions represents a great opportunity for researchers wanting to test their algorithms and ideas before trying them into the real robots. The interest in the 3D simulation competition is growing fast and research is slowly getting back to the design and implementation of multi-agent higher-level behaviors based on solid low level behavior architectures for realistic humanoid robot teams. Further information and the SimSpark server software can be accessed via

In consecutive years, the number of robots was increased continuouslly and reached 11 vs 11 in 2012. 2013 saw the first competition in which teams were able to use heterogenous robot types, i.e. variations of the standard Nao robot. Also a first drop in player challenge showed the performance of the teams when playing with unknown teammates of other teams. For 2014 the league has committed itself to run a first running robot challenge. The goal is to lead other leagues the way on which hardware is required to have robots that are able to run.

RoboCup Simulation Competitions

RoboCup 2013 Information

RoboCup 2014 Information


The Soccer Simulation League includes five committees: (1) Maintenance Committee (MC), (2) Technical Committee (TC), (3) Organizing Committee (OC), (4) Executive Committee (Exec), and (5) Trustees.

  • Maintenance Committee (MC)

Soccer Simulation (as like as all other leagues in RoboCup) is not just a competition. The aim is to in one hand prepare a testbed for researchers to implement their ideas and test their methods in a simulated multi agent environment and on the other hand keep moving forward to have more realistic environment and join to other leagues to achieve the common goal of the RoboCup. So, every year we have developments in the league (by MC and help of teams). These developments shows if the league can be continued in RoboCup anymore or not (this will be decided by Federation). MC is the heart of the league. The MC maintains and extends the simulator(s) used in our league based on decisions of the Technical Committee (TC), but it also takes the initiative on implementing useful features that do not directly affect the soccer simulation itself. The work is entirely done by volunteers.

  • Organizing Committee (OC)

OC is responsible for organizing of the league, this includes setting schedule, updating website of the league, performing qualification process, deciding about hardwares (with local organizers) and running games during competitions (organizing the league in RC'09). OC has a close collaboration with TC. OC members are selected by the Exec of the league and trustees.

  • Technical Committee (TC)

TC is responsible for planning for the technical aspects of the league in short term to keep in the roadmap of the whole RoboCup in long temr. TC has close collaboration with both MC and OC, also it gets feedbacks from teams in the mailing lists. TC sets deadlines for the releasing the simulators in contact with MC and propose the MC the features and technical expects from the simulator for the next years. TC helps OC in setting rules and is responsible for evaluating 3D Development teams. TC members are selected based in an election by votes of team leaders. Usually there is one appointed member who is chosen by trustees and execs to be in TC.

  • Executive Committee (EC)

Executive committee presents the league and its achievements to the Federation every year and get the feedbacks to organize the league. Exec members discuss about the long term and short term goals of the league and have contact with other leagues and federation to have better plan for the future of the league. Exec. members are members of TC as well. Exec members are elected by the trustee board of the federation and they serve 3-year terms.

  • Trustees

The RoboCup board of trustees is responsible for the legal and high-level organizational aspects of the RoboCup federation. For example, the trustees enter into sponsorship agreements, deal with trademarks, decide on locations of RoboCup and enter into contracts with the local organizers, authorize use of the RoboCup name and logos, and authorize national committees and local events. The trustees also decide when to add or remove leagues and subleagues, appoint members of other committees, and manage the by-laws of the Federation. Most importantly, the trustees work hard to further the overall image and scientific goals of RoboCup and to keep the organization exciting and useful for all of the participants. The trustees serve 3-year terms. They are allowed to serve 2 consecutive terms after which they must spend at least one year off of the board. New trustees are elected by the national committees and by the current trustees. Current and past executive committee members are eligible.

  • Consultants

Beside these committees, there are also consultants who are former member of the Exec and have great experiences from technical and organizing aspests of the whole league. The current Exec members turn to consultans for advice as needed. Consultants are entitles by trustees.

Organization Committee (RoboCup 2015)

  • 2D Simulation League
    • Mikhail Prokopenko, CSIRO Digital Productivity, Australia (2D Chair)
    • Xiao Li, University of Science and Technology of China (2D local)
  • 3D Simulation League

Technical Committee (RoboCup 2015)

  • 2D Simulation League

Executive Committee (RoboCup 2015)


2D Competititon Rules (2011) [1]

3D Competititon Rules (2013) [2]


2D Simulation League (2013)

No. Team Name
2 AUT Masterminds
3 Axiom
4 CSU_Yunlu
5 Cyrus
6 Damash
7 Daredevils
8 FC Portugal 2D
9 FC-Perspolis
10 GDUT_TiJi2013
11 Gliders2013
12 GPR2D
13 HELIOS2013
14 HfutEngine2013
15 ITAndroids
16 LegenDary
17 Nexus2D
18 Oxsy
19 Ri-one
20 UBC Thunderbots
21 UT Austin Villa
22 Warthog Robotics
23 WrightEagle
24 YuShan2013

3D Simulation League (2013)

No. Team Name Team Leader Affiliation
1 Apollo3D Juan Liu Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications
2 AUA3D Runmei Zhang Anhui University of Architecture
3 Bahia3D Marco Simões UNEB
4 Bold Hearts Sander van Dijk University of Hertfordshire
5 cit3d lichunguang Changzhou Institute of Technology
6 FC Portugal 3D Nuno Lau University of Aveiro/University of Minho/University of Porto
7 FUT-K_3D Masato ISHITAKA Fukui University of Technology
8 HfutEngine3D Pengfei Zhang HFUT
9 ITAndroids Fabio Luis de Mello Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica
10 IUIM3D Hojjat Nikan Iran University of Industries & Mines (Tehran Center Branch)
11 Karachi Koalas Mary-Anne Williams and Sajjad Haider University of Technology, Sydney and Institute of Business Administration, Karachi
12 KylinSky3D Hong JIANG Hohai University Wentian College / Hohai University
13 L3M-SIM Nicolas JOUANDEAU Paris8 University
14 magmaOffenburg Klaus Dorer Hochschule Offenburg
15 Miracle3D Wang Lei Hefei Normal University
16 Mithras3D Nazanin Dastserri Farzanegan 1 Tehran
17 Nexus3D Mahdi Alehdaghi Ferdowsi University of Mashhad
18 ODENS MASUTANI Yasuhiro Osaka Electro-Communication University
19 Paydar3D Mohammad Razeghi Sharif University Of Technology
20 Rightel Sajjad Torabian University of Tehran
21 RoboCanes Ubbo Visser University of Miami
22 S4M Alireza Mirzargar
23 Scorpius Sadegh Mokari AmirKabir University of Technology (AUT)
24 SEU-Jolly Yao Liu Southeast University
25 UT Austin Villa Patrick MacAlpine University of Texas at Austin

RoboCup Scores

RoboCup Champions

2D Simulation League

Year 1st Place Team 2nd Place Team 3rd Place Team Media
2013 WrightEagle HELIOS2013 YuShan2013 Final
2012 HELIOS2012 WrightEagle MarIiK Final
2011 WrightEagle HELIOS2011 MarliK Final
2010 HELIOS WrightEagle Oxsy Final
2009 WrightEagle HELIOS Oxsy Final
2008 Brainstormers WrightEagle HELIOS Final1 Final2
2007 Brainstormers WrightEagle HELIOS Final
2006 WrightEagle Brainstormers Ri-one Final
2005 Brainstormers WrightEagle TokyoTechSFC Final
2004 STEP, Russia Brainstormers Mersad Final
2003 UvA Trilearn TsinghuAeolus Brainstormers Final
2002 TsinghuAeolus Everest Brainstormers Final
2001 TsinghuAeolus Brainstormers FC Portugal Final1 Final2
2000 FC Portugal Brainstormers ATTCMUnited Final
1999 CMUnited magmaFreiburg Essex Wizards Final
1998 CMUnited AT Humboldt, WindmillWanderer Final
1997 AT Humboldt Andhill ISIS Final

3D Simulation League

Year 1st Place Team 2nd Place Team 3rd Place Team Media
2014 UT Austin Villa RoboCanes magmaOffenburg Final 1 Final 2
2013 Apollo 3D UT Austin Villa FC Portugal Final 1 Final 2
2012 UT Austin Villa RoboCanes BoldHearts Final Highlights
2011 UT Austin Villa CIT3D Apollo3D Final 1 Final 2
2010 Apollo3D Nao Team Humboldt HfutEngine Final 1 Final 2
2009 SEU-RedSun Boldhearts LsuAmoyNQ Final 1 Final 2
2007 WrightEagle Little Green BATS SEU-3D Final
2006 FC Portugal WrightEagle ZJUBase
2005 Aria2005Kavir Brainstormers3D Caspian, Iran & ZJUBase
2004 Aria AT-Humbold UTUtd2004

Research State of the Art

Publications Related to the RoboCup Soccer Simulation League

Other Information

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